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Islam: is a religion based on the teachings of the Qur'an, a sacred book. People who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one god, whom they call Allah. Muslims also believe that Muhammad was the last of many prophets from God. They believe that the Qur'an is the exact word of God, as revealed to Muhammad. Muslims also call Muhammad a "messenger of Allah".
After Muhammad died, Muslims wrote down stories about what he had said and done. Muslims call these stories Hadith. Muslim scholars collected all of these Hadith in books and compared them to each other. They decided which Hadith were most likely to be true records of the Sunnah, that is, the words and actions of Muhammad. Muslims see the Sunnah as an important source of guidance, along with the Qur'an. Islam has laws based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah. These laws are called "Sharia".
Muslim lawyers have studied Sharia and written down their ideas about how to judge different cases. These ideas about Sharia are called Fiqh.
Islam is second-most practiced religion in the Republic of India after Hinduism, with more than 13.4% of the country's population (over 138 million as per 2001 census and 160.9 million per 2009 estimate) identifying themselves as Muslims. India's Muslim population is the world's third largest and the world's largest Muslim-minority population.